Volume 4, Issue 1
Volume 4, Issue 1


Luca Bello
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    WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutilation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016
    WHO. Care of girls & women living with female genital mutilation in a clinical handbook. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018
    Abdulcadir J, Marras S, Catania L, Abdulcadir O, Petignat P. Defibulation: A Visual Referenceand Learning Tool. J Sex Med. 2018;15(4):601-611.
    RCOG. Female Genital Mutilation and its Management (Green-top Guideline No. 53) - July 2015
    Perron L, Senikas V, Burnett M, Davis V. Guideline No. 395-Female Genital Cutting. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2020 Feb;42(2):204-217.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2019.06.015. PMID: 32007263.
    Esu E, Udo A, Okusanya BO, Agamse D, Meremikwu MM. Antepartum or intrapartum deinfibulation for childbirth in women with type III female genital mutilation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017
    Okusanya BO, Oduwole O, Nwachuku N, Meremikwu MM. Deinfibulation for preventing or treating complications in women living with type III female genital mutilation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017
    The Labia Library - Women's Health Victoria -
    Berg, R.C.; Taraldsen, S.; Said, M.A.; Sorbye, I.K.; Vangen, S. The effectiveness of surgical interventions for women with FGM/C: A systematic review. BJOG Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 2018, 125, 278–287.
    Taraschi G, Manin E, Bianchi De Micheli F, Abdulcadir J. Defibulation can recall the trauma of female genital mutilation/cutting: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2022 May 24;16(1):223.
    Mohamed, F.S.; Wild, V.; Earp, B.D.; Johnson-Agbakwu, C.; Abdulcadir, J. Clitoral Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting: A Review of Surgical Techniques and Ethical Debate. J. Sex. Med. 2020, 17, 531–542.
    Wulfes, N.; von Fritschen, U.; Strunz, C.; Kröhl, N.; Scherer, R.; Kröger, C. Cognitive-Emotional Aspects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Female Genital Mutilation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 4993.
    Johnsdotter, S. The Impact of Migration on Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting and Experiences of Sexual Dysfunction Among Migrant Women with FGC. Curr. Sex. Health Rep. 2018, 10, 18–24.
    Gele, A.A.; Sagbakken, M.; Kumar, B. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area. Int. J. Women’s Health 2015, 7, 933–943.
    Catania, L.; Abdulcadir, O.; Puppo, V.; Verde, J.B.; Abdulcadir, J.; Abdulcadir, D. Pleasure and Orgasm inWomen with Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). J. Sex. Med. 2007, 4, 1666–1678.
    Abdulcadir, J.; Rodriguez, M.I.; Petignat, P.; Say, L. Clitoral Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Case Studies. J. Sex. Med. 2015, 12, 274–281.
    Abayomi, O.; Chibuzor, M.T.; Okusanya, B.O.; Esu, E.; Odey, E.; Meremikwu, M.M. Supportive psychotherapy or client education alongside surgical procedures to correct complications of female genital mutilation: A systematic review. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2017, 136 (Suppl. 1), 51–55.
    Adelufosi, A.; Edet, B.; Arikpo, D.; Aquaisua, E.; Meremikwu, M.M. Cognitive behavioral therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders in women and girls living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2017, 136 (Suppl. 1), 56–59.
    Thabet, S.M.A.; Thabet, A.S. Defective sexuality and female circumcision: The cause and the possible management. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 2003, 29, 12–19.
    Nour, N.M.; Michels, K.B.; Bryant, A.E. Defibulation to treat female genital cutting: Effect on symptoms and sexual function. Obstet. Gynecol. 2006, 108, 55–60.
    Foldès, P.; Cuzin, B.; Andro, A. Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: A prospective cohort study. Lancet 2012, 380, 134–141.
    Seifeldin, A. Genital Reconstructive Surgery after Female Genital Mutilation. Obstet. Gynecol. Int. J. 2016, 4, 1–4.
    Gutierrez-Ontalvilla, P.; Andjelkov, K.; Ruiz-Valls, A. Invited Discussion on: Clinical and Patient Reported Outcomes of 19 Patients Undergoing Clitoral and Labial Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 2021, 46, 478–479.
    Abdulcadir, J.; Rodriguez, M.I.; Say, L. A systematic review of the evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation/cutting. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2015, 129, 93–97.
    Jordal M, Griffin G, Sigurjonsson H. 'I want what every other woman has': reasons for wanting clitoral reconstructive surgery after female genital cutting - a qualitative study from Sweden. Cult Health Sex. 2019 Jun;21(6):701-716
    Yara Bazzoun and others, Surgical Treatments of Chronic Vulvar Pain After Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 2, February 2022, Pages 290–301
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